AI & Advertising: a Consumer Perspective, Bibliography

Harriet Kingaby
13 min readSep 16, 2020


A bibliography for my recently published report can be found below. All sources were accessed between 1st February and 25th May 2020.

Aapti Institute (2020) The Aapti Podcast: Discussing Surveillance with Divij Joshi, Mozilla Tech Policy Fellow. Aapti Institute. <>


Achara, J.P., Ács, G., & Castelluccia, C. (2015). On the Unicity of Smartphone Applications. WPES ‘15.

Advertising Magazine (2015) You probably think digital ad fraud doesn’t affect you. Think again. Innovation. <>

Agarwal, S. (2020) The secret way most apps spy on you even when you think they aren’t. Digital Trends. <>

Ahmad, I. (2019) Global Ad Blocking Behavior 2019 [Infographic]. Social Media Today. <>

AI Now Institute (2019) AI and Climate Change: How they’re connected, and what we can do about it. AI Now Institute. <>

Ali, M., Sapiezynski, P., Bogen, M., Korolova, A., Mislove, A., & Rieke, A. (2019). Discrimination through Optimization. Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction, 3, 1–30.

Amigo, I. (2018) The Metro Stations of São Paulo That Read Your Face. Bloomberg Labs. <>

Ausloos, J., Mahieu, R., & Veale, M. (2019, November 25). Getting Data Subject Rights Right.

Avaaz (2020) Why is YouTube Broadcasting Climate Misinformation to Millions? Avaaz. <>

Barrett, L. F., Adolphs, R., Marsella, S., Martinez, A. M., & Pollak, S. D. (2019). Emotional expressions reconsidered: Challenges to inferring emotion from human facial movements. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 20, 1–68. doi:10.1177/1529100619832930 <>

BBC News (2019) India e-cigarettes: Ban announced to prevent youth ‘epidemic’. BBC News. <>

BBC News (2020) Clearview AI: Face-collecting company database hacked. BBC News. <>

Belluz, J. (2019) The vape company Juul said it doesn’t target teens. Its early ads tell a different story. Vox. <>

Benaich, N. & Hogarth, I. (2019) State of AI Report 2019. State of AI. <>

Benes, R. (2018) Many People Feel They Lack Control Over Their Personal Data. e-Marketer. <>

Brad Smith, B. (2019) We’re increasing our carbon fee as we double down on sustainability. Microsoft. <>

Branded (2020) France’s new ‘Sleeping Giants’ law. Branded <>

Branded (2020) Keyword blacklists: why our ad dollars aren’t reaching the news. Branded. <>

Bronk, C. (2019) What 5G Means for Energy. Council on Foreign Relations. <>

Bryan, K. (2019) P&G Shifts To Propensity Marketing, Leveraging Massive First-Party Database. Digital Media Solutions. <>

Buckle, C. (2018) Chart of the Week: Rethinking “Trust” in a New Era of Data Privacy. Global Web Index. <>

Cabral, E. (2019) Telefónica del Perú vende ubicación de clientes y pone en riesgo su privacidad. Ojo Publico. <>

Capgemini (2019) Why addressing ethical questions in AI will benefit organisations. Capgemini. <>

Caribou Digital (2017) Paying Attention to the Poor: Digital Advertising in Emerging Markets. Farnham, Surrey, United Kingdom: Caribou Digital Publishing, 2017. <>

Chen, Elsie and Stevenson, Alexandra (2019) New York Times <>

Coldicutt, R. (2019) Just enough Internet: Why public service Internet should be a model of restraint. Dot Everyone. <>

Consumers International (2019) Building A Digital World Consumers Can Trust. Consumers International <>

Consumers International (2019) Consumer IoT Trust by Design 2019 Guidelines and Checklists. Consumers International. <>

Consumers International (2020) Connecting voices: a role for consumer rights in developing digital society. Consumers International. <>

Consumers International (2020) Social media scams: Understanding the consumer experience to create a safer digital world. Consumers International. <>

Davis, A. (2019) How Social Media Spurred Myanmar’s Latest Violence. The Institute for War & Peace Reporting <>

Dayasindhu, N. (2019) Not AI alone but AI + ethics. Founding Fuel. <>

Daykin, J. (2019) Save Digital Advertising, Save the World? #TogetherWeCAN #Outvertising. LinkedIn, Published on November 13, 2019. <>

de Montjoye, Y., Hidalgo, C., Verleysen, M. et al. (2013) Unique in the Crowd: The privacy bounds of human mobility. Sci Rep 3, 1376 (2013).

Deloitte (2019) Deloitte Global Mobile Consumer Survey 2019: The Nordic cut. Deloitte. <>

Department of Justice U.S. Attorney’s Office, Eastern District of New York (2018) Two International Cybercriminal Rings Dismantled and Eight Defendants Indicted for Causing Tens of Millions of Dollars in Losses in Digital Advertising Fraud. Department of Justice U.S. Attorney’s Office, Eastern District of New York. <>

Digiday (2011) Explainer: Behavioral Targeting. Digiday. <>

DigiDay (2011) Explainer: Behavioral Targeting. DigiDay. <>

EDRI (2020) Ban Biometric Mass Surveillance A set of fundamental rights demands for the European Commission and EU Member States. EDRI <>

Emma Strubell, E., Ganesh, A. & McCallum, A. (2019) Energy and Policy Considerations for Deep Learning in NLP. <>

Emma-Iwuoha, L. (2016) Data Localization Laws around the World. Michaelsons. <>

Enberg, J. (2019) Global Digital Ad Spending 2019: Digital Accounts for Half of Total Media Ad Spending Worldwide. e-Marketer. <>

Ethical Journalism Network (2020) “Fake News” | Deep Fakes | Information Disorder | Disinformation | Misinformation | Mal-information. Ethical Journalism Network. <>

Facebook Business (2018) Restricting Ads for Addiction Treatment Centers and Bail Bonds Facebook Business. <>

Field, M. (2018) Lack of digital skills will cause 7 million to be ‘left behind’ in next decade. The Telegraph. <>

Financial Express Bureau (2018) A look at India’s deep digital literacy divide and why it needs to be bridged. Financial Express Bureau. <>

Forbrukerrådet (2020) OUT OF CONTROL: How consumers are exploited by the online advertising industry. Forbrukerrådet. <>

Fortify Rights (2018) They Gave Them Long Swords: Preparations for Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity Against Rohingya Muslims in Rakhine State, Myanmar. Fortify Rights. <>

Friends Against Scams (2020) Beware Of COVID-19 Scams. Friends Against Scams. <>

GLIAnet (2020) Can we trust the web (again)? GLIAnet. <>

Google Patents (2018) Targeted advertisement based on face clustering for time-varying video. Google Patents. <>

Greenwood, T (2019) Introducing the Sustainable Web Manifesto Planet. Wholegrain Digital. <>

Grigonis, H. K. (2017) Pizzeria sign caught tracking customers via a camera, facial recognition. Digital Trends. <>

Grigonis, H. K. (2019) I turned off Facebook’s ad trackers, and the ads only got more personalized. Digital Trends. <>

Guttmann, A. (2019) AI use in marketing — Statistics & Facts. Statista. <>

Harai, Y. (2020) Read Yuval Harari’s blistering warning to Davos in full. The World Economic Forum. <>

Hook, A. (2020) Innovating on Web Monetization: Coil and Firefox Reality. Mozilla Hacks <>



IABUK (2020) Content Verification Guide: How to implement a brand safe strategy. IABUK. <>

Information Commissioner’s Office (2017) Big data, artificial intelligence, machine learning and data protection. Information Commissioner’s Office. <>


Iwańska, K. (2020) 10 Reasons Why Online Advertising is Broken. Medium. <>

Iwańska, K. (2020) Behavioural Advertising 101. Medium. <>

Jackler, R. K., Chau, C., Getachew, B. D., Whitcomb, M. M., Lee-Heidenreich, J., Bhatt, A. M., Kim-O’Sullivan, S. H. S., Hoffman, Z. A., Jackler, L. M., Ramamurthi, D. (2019) JUUL Advertising Over its First Three Years on the Market. Stanford University School of Medicine. <>

Jenco, M. (2019) Study: Teens more likely to vape after seeing store ads. AAP News. <>

Jobin, A., Ienca, M. & Vayena, E. (2019) The global landscape of AI ethics guidelines. Nat Mach Intell 1, 389–399 (2019).

Jobin, A., Ienca, M. & Vayena, E. The global landscape of AI ethics guidelines. Nat Mach Intell 1, 389–399 (2019).

Joseph, F. (2018) Why the business model of social media giants like Facebook is incompatible with human rights. The Conversation. <>

Kaltheuner, F. & Obermüller, N. (2018) New Technologies, Old Discrimination. HAU. <>

Kirchgaessner, S. (2019) Revealed: Google made large contributions to climate change deniers. The Guardian. <>

Laub, Z. (2019) Hate Speech on Social Media: Global Comparisons. Council on Foreign Relations. <>

LePan, N. (2020) Visualizing the Length of the Fine Print, for 14 Popular Apps. Visual Capitalist. <>

Lipson, F. (2019) The five strangest scams of 2019. Which?. <>

M. Pärssinen, M. Kotila, R. Cuevas, A. Phansalkar, J. Manner (2018) Environmental impact assessment of online advertising. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Volume 73, 2018, Pages 177–200.

Machkovech, S. (2017) Report: Facebook helped advertisers target teens who feel “worthless” [Updated] Leaked 2017 document reveals FB Australia’s intent to exploit teens’ words, images. Ars Technica. <>

Manancourt, V., Delcker, J., Scott, M., & Cerulus, L. (2020) In fight against coronavirus, governments embrace surveillance European countries are hollowing out hard-fought privacy standards as they embrace tech solutions to fight the coronavirus. Politico. <>

Marreiro, F. (2020) Cell phone alerts against coronavirus, a weapon against the pandemic and a debate on privacy. El Pais. <>

Marshall, J. (2014) WTF is a supply-side platform? Digiday. <>

Marshall, J. (2014) WTF is real-time bidding? Digiday. <>

McAteer, O. (2018) Vice slams brand safety keyword blacklists after alarming probe. Campaign US. <>

Meghnad, S. (2020) Bloodlust TV: Sudhir Chaudhary’s campaign of hate, powered by Sensodyne. News Laundry. <>

Merja Myllylahti (2018) An attention economy trap? An empirical investigation into four news companies’ Facebook traffic and social media revenue, Journal of Media Business Studies, 15:4, 237–253, DOI: 10.1080/16522354.2018.1527521 <>

MISSING: (2019) Battle over illegal data harvesting looms for online advertising, FT

Mozilla (2019) Mozilla Internet Health Report 2019: How healthy is the internet? Mozilla. <>

Müller, Karsten and Schwarz, Carlo, Fanning the Flames of Hate: Social Media and Hate Crime (June 5, 2020). Available at SSRN: <> or <>

Noah Harari, Yuval: The World After Coronavirus:

O’Reilly, L. (2019) UK’s data regulator again warns ad tech over GDPR compliance. Digiday. <>

O’Brien, L. (2020) The Far-Right Helped Create The World’s Most Powerful Facial Recognition Technology. Huffington Post. <>

Oakes, O. (2019) ICO: adtech players are holding on to personal data. Campaign. <>

PC Mag (2020) cookie (encyclopedia entry). PC Mag. <>

Pemberton, C. (2017) Simple Questions to Assess AI Risks and Benefits. Gartner. <>

Phys Org (2017) ‘Fake news’ becomes a business model: researchers. Phys Org. <>

Pratt, K. (2020) UK Citizens Urged To Beware COVID-19 Scammers. Forbes. <>

Privacy International (2020) AdTech. Privacy International. <>

Riehm KE, Feder KA, Tormohlen KN, et al. (2019) Associations Between Time Spent Using Social Media and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems Among US Youth. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019;76(12):1266–1273. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2019.2325. <>

Roose, K. (2019) The making of a YouTube radical. New York Times. <>


RSA (2019) RSA DATA PRIVACY & SECURITY SURVEY 2019: The Growing Data Disconnect Between Consumers and Businesses. RSA. <>

Ruhaak, A. (2019) Data Trusts: Why, What and How. Medium. <>

Ryan, J. (2020) New data shows publisher revenue impact of cutting 3rd party trackers. Brave Insights. <>

S. Paulo, F. (2018) Justiça determina que empresa pare de coletar dados faciais do metrô em SP Decisão favorável ao Idec determina multa diária de R$ 50 mil por dia em caso de descumprimento. Instituto de Defesa do Consumidor. <>

Samadi, F. (2019) Brands in New Zealand pull ads from Facebook, Google following Christchurch attack. Campaign <>

Schiff, A. (2020) Mobile Device IDs Will Be The Next Ad Tracker To Bite The Dust. Ad Exchanger. <

Schwartz LM, Woloshin S. (2019) Medical Marketing in the United States, 1997–2016. JAMA. 2019;321(1):80–96. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.19320. <>

Searle, D. (2015) Beyond ad blocking — the biggest boycott in human history. Doc Searls Weblog. <>

Sentance, R. (2018) What is a consent management platform, and are they needed? <>

Siev, A. (2020) Publishers walk a revenue/ad quality tightrope — but there’s hope. Digital Content Next. <>

Silverman, C. (2018) 8 People Are Facing Charges As A Result Of The FBI’s Biggest-Ever Ad Fraud Investigation The men are facing 13 charges for allegedly running sophisticated global ad fraud schemes. BuzzFeed News. <>

Silverman, C. (2020) The Coronavirus Is A Media Extinction Event. Buzzfeed News. <>

Spargo, C. (2019) The story behind the industry’s first diversity-focused ad network. Prolific North. <>

Stanaway, C. (2019) How our fake ‘scam’ ad breezed through Facebook’s approvals process. Which?. <>

Statista (2020) Global digital population as of July 2020(in billions). Statista. <>

Stelloh, T. (2016) ‘Pizzagate’ Gunman Surrendered After Finding No Evidence of Fake Conspiracy: Court Docs. NBC News. <>

Stewart, R. (2020) Advertising and social media face fresh trust issues amid global crisis. The Drum. <>

Stupp, C. (2019) Fraudsters Used AI to Mimic CEO’s Voice in Unusual Cybercrime Case. The Wall Street Journal. <>

The Alan Turing Institute (2020) A right to explanation.The Alan Turing Institute. <>

The Alternative (2019) Data centres drive our life in the Cloud. But they’re on an upward curve of energy use… How can they be planet-friendly? The Alternative. <>

The Information Commissioner’s Office (2020) What is personal data? The Information Commissioner’s Office. <>

The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (2018) Report of the independent international fact-finding mission on Myanmar. The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. <>

Trueman, C. (2019) Why data centres are the new frontier in the fight against climate change. Computerworld. <>

U.S. Department of Justice (2019) Assistant Attorney General Makan Delrahim Delivers Remarks at the Antitrust Division’s Public Workshop on Competition in Television and Digital Advertising. U.S. Department of Justice. <>

United Nations (2019) UN Strategy and Plan of Action on Hate Speech 18 June SYNOPSIS.pdf. United Nations. <>

United Nations (2020) Universal Declaration of Human Rights. United Nations. <>

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2018) Data privacy: new global survey reveals growing internet anxiety. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. <>

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2018) Trust as vital for e-commerce as internet connection, UN meeting hears. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. <>

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (2019) DIGITAL ECONOMY REPORT 2019. VALUE CREATION AND CAPTURE: IMPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. <>

Vecsei, V. (2019) Fighting the surveillance economy — A practical guide for individuals and companies. Medium. <>

Vicioso, S. (2015) Programmatic advertising 101: how it works. Seer Interactive. <>

Wakefield, J. (2019) Instagram e-cigarette posts banned by ad watchdog. BBC News. <>

Walker, N. (2020) Pride of Norway: How Green Mountain is impacting the global data centre industry. Technology Magazine. <>

WARC (2019) Consumers reluctantly prefer ad-supported content. WARC. <>

Waterson, J. (2020) Martin Lewis calls for publishers to act over fake news ads. The Guardian. <>

Weiss, M. (2019) Digiday Research: Most publishers don’t benefit from behavioral ad targeting. Digiday. <>

Wikipedia (2020) Budmash. Wikipedia. <>

Wikipedia (2020) Device fingerprint. Wikipedia. <>

Wikipedia (2020) Information broker. Wikipedia. <>

Working Group on Vulnerable and Disadvantaged Consumers, 3rd SESSION 9–10 July 2018. Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Consumer Law and Policy. <>

World Federation of Advertisers (2018) WFA releases full version of Global Media Charter to reform digital ad ecosystem. World Federation of Advertisers. <>

World Federation of Advertisers (2019) WFA launches The State of Advertising report. World Federation of Advertisers. <>

World Wide Web Foundation (2019) 30 years on, what’s next #ForTheWeb?. World Wide Web Foundation. <>



Harriet Kingaby

Co-chair of the Conscious Advertising Network and climate misinformation expert at Media Bounty. Advertising, ethics, disinformation and climate change.